Chapter 106Removal and Impeachment of Public Officers
106.010. The governor shall have power and he is hereby authorized to remove from office, without assigning any other reason therefor, any appointive state official required by law to be appointed by the governor, whenever in his opinion such removal is necessary for the betterment of the public service, but the governor may, at his discretion, in any order of removal which he may make under authority of this section, assign additional and more specific reasons for such removal.
Who is impeachable--reasons for impeachment.
(RSMo 1939 § 12826)
Appointive state officers, removal of, Const. Art. IV § 17
106.020. All elective executive officials of the state, judges of the supreme court, the court of appeals and circuit judges shall be liable to impeachment for crime, misconduct, habitual drunkenness, willful neglect of duty, corruption in office, incompetency, or any offense involving moral turpitude, or oppression in office.
Power of impeachment--trial.
(L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12836, A.L. 1973 S.B. 263)
Impeachment of public officers, Const. Art. VII §§ 1 to 3
Removal of officers not subject to impeachment, Const. Art. VII § 4
106.030. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment. All impeachments shall be tried before the supreme court, except that the governor or a member of the supreme court shall be tried by a special commission as provided for in sections 106.020 to 106.210.
Articles of impeachment--transmittal.
(L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12837)
106.040. When the house of representatives shall be satisfied that there is good cause to impeach any officer, they shall cause articles of impeachment to be made out in due form against such officer and shall transmit the same to the supreme court, and immediately elect managers to prosecute such impeachment; provided, however, that in the case of impeachment of the governor or a member of the supreme court, they shall transmit such articles of impeachment to the senate who shall, without delay, proceed to the election of a special commission to try such impeachment as provided in section 106.080. In case of death, resignation or failure to serve, of any manager elected by the house as aforesaid, the governor shall, if the house be not in session, fill such vacancy; and the person thus appointed shall have the same power and perform the same duties as if elected by the house.
Suspension of impeached officer.
(RSMo 1939 § 12836, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12838)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11210; 1919 § 9183; 1909 § 10212
106.050. If any officer shall be impeached, he is hereby suspended from exercising his office, after he shall be notified thereof, until his acquittal.
Office vacated by suspension--temporary appointment.
(RSMo 1939 § 12837, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12839)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11211; 1919 § 9184; 1909 § 10213
106.060. If the secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer or attorney general be impeached, and notified thereof, an appointment shall be made by the governor to supply such vacancy until such impeachment shall be determined; and if the president of the senate be impeached, notice thereof shall immediately be given by the house of representatives to the senate, that another president may be elected by the senate.
Service of articles of impeachment.
(RSMo 1939 § 12838, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12840)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11212; 1919 § 9185; 1909 § 10214
106.070. When articles of impeachment shall be presented to the supreme court, the court shall immediately appoint some day for the appearance of the accused and cause a summons to be issued, signed by the chief justice of the court and countersigned by one of the judges thereof, with a copy of the articles of impeachment annexed, requiring the accused to appear on the day appointed for that purpose, and answer the charges exhibited against him, which shall be served by the marshal of the court, or by special messenger by the court appointed, a reasonable time before the day set for his appearance.
(RSMo 1939 § 12839, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12841)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11213; 1919 § 9186; 1909 § 10215
106.080. If the governor or a judge of the supreme court shall be impeached, the house of representatives shall immediately transmit such articles of impeachment to the senate who shall, without delay, proceed to the election of a special commission to try the cause, which commission shall be composed of seven eminent jurists, who at the time of their election are judges of the circuit or appellate courts of this state; provided, however, that judges of the supreme court shall not be eligible to serve on such special commission. The commission shall meet in the City of Jefferson within thirty days after their election on a day designated by the senate.
Organization of commission--summons to accused--employment ofclerical help.
(RSMo 1939 § 12841, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12842)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11215; 1919 § 9188; 1909 § 10217
106.090. Immediately upon meeting, the commission shall proceed to organize by electing a president and a secretary and thereupon shall designate some day not less than twenty days nor more than thirty days after the service of the summons for the appearance of the accused and cause a summons to be issued, signed by the president of the commission and countersigned by the secretary thereof, with a copy of the articles of impeachment annexed, requiring the accused to appear on the day designated for that purpose, and answer charges exhibited against him, which shall be served by a messenger appointed by the commission, a reasonable time before the day set for his appearance. The commission shall have power to employ such clerical help and assistants as they may deem necessary to the proper conduct of the trial.
Serving of summons.
(L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12843)
106.100. The notices as required by sections 106.070 and 106.090 shall be served on the accused personally, if he can be found; and if he cannot be found, then by leaving a copy of such summons and articles of impeachment at his dwelling house or usual place of abode, with some member of the family above the age of fifteen years.
Compensation to members of commission.
(RSMo 1939 § 12840, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12844)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11214; 1919 § 9187; 1909 § 10216
106.110. Each member of the special commission, provided for in section 106.080, shall be allowed an amount not to exceed ten dollars per day for actual and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of his duties, which allowance shall be in lieu of all other compensation for such service.
Accused to be given time to answer.
(L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12845)
106.120. Upon the appearance of the accused, he shall have reasonable time to answer the impeachment; and when the answer shall be filed, the managers may reply thereto; and when issue shall be joined on any such impeachment, the court or commission shall appoint a time for trial thereof.
(RSMo 1939 § 12842, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12846)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11216; 1919 § 9189; 1909 § 10218
106.130. The president of the commission or the chief justice of the supreme court, as the case may be, on application of the respondent, or any of his counsel, or either of the managers, shall issue subpoenas for witnesses and commissions to take depositions where the witness is unable to attend from sickness or other infirmity, or where the witness is without the state.
Manner of taking depositions.
(RSMo 1939 § 12843, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12847)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11217; 1919 § 9190; 1909 § 10219
106.140. Such depositions shall be taken in the same manner and the same notice be given as where depositions are taken in circuit court.
Proceedings ex parte.
(RSMo 1939 § 12844, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12848)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11218; 1919 § 9191; 1909 § 10220
106.150. If the accused shall not appear after being notified, or, after appearing shall fail to answer, the court or commission may proceed ex parte.
(RSMo 1939 § 12845, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12849)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11219; 1919 § 9192; 1909 § 10221
106.160. At the time and place appointed for trial, and before proceeding thereon, some person authorized by law so to do shall administer to the members of the special commission, in cases of impeachment of the governor or a judge of the supreme court, or to the judges of the supreme court, in cases of impeachments of other officers, an oath or affirmation impartially to try and determine the charges and to do justice according to the law and the evidence; and no member shall sit or give his vote until he shall have taken such oath or affirmation.
Impeachment trial proceedings.
(RSMo 1939 § 12846, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12850)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11220; 1919 § 9193; 1909 § 10222
106.170. The members being sworn, the supreme court or the special commission, as the case may be, shall proceed to hear, try and determine such impeachment, and may adjourn the trial to any other time; and the court or commission shall determine all questions of law arising during the trial upon the admissibility of evidence, the competency of witnesses, or otherwise, and may punish any person for contempt committed toward it, or for obstructing the administration of justice on such trial, in as full a manner as any court of record could do for like contempt toward such court. Except as otherwise provided in sections 106.020 to 106.210, the rules of evidence and procedure applicable in civil actions before circuit judges in the circuit courts of this state shall be followed in all trials of impeachment whether before the supreme court or the special commission.
Rights of accused--five-sevenths majority required to convict.
(RSMo 1939 § 12847, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12851, A.L. 1978 H.B. 1634)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11221; 1919 § 9194; 1909 § 10223
106.180. In all such trials the accused shall have a right to be heard by himself and his counsel, and all matters relating to procedure and the conduct of the trial shall be determined by a majority vote of the judges or commissioners and shall be entered and made a part of the record of the proceeding; but no judgment or sentence of conviction shall be given against any person upon any impeachment without concurrence of five-sevenths of the judges of the supreme court or of the members of the special commission.
Accused party subject to indictment.
(RSMo 1939 § 12848, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12851a)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11222; 1919 § 9195; 1909 § 10224
106.190. The party convicted or acquitted shall, notwithstanding such conviction or acquittal, be subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, for any indictable offense, according to the law of the land.
Disposition of transcript and judgment.
(RSMo 1939 § 12849, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12851b)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11223; 1919 § 9196; 1909 § 10225
Impeachment not to prevent prosecution for offenses, Const. Art. VII § 3
106.200. The supreme court or special commission, as the case may be, shall cause a transcript of the proceedings had on any impeachment to be made out, and the judgment of the court or commission, whether of conviction or acquittal, which shall be signed by the officer presiding at the trial and attested by the secretary of the commission or a judge of the court hearing the cause and deposited in the office of the secretary of state.
Writ to run in name of state.
(RSMo 1939 § 12850, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12851c)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11224; 1919 § 9197; 1909 § 10226
106.210. All writs by the court or commission shall run in the name of the state of Missouri, shall be subscribed by the presiding officer and countersigned by a judge of the supreme court or in cases of impeachment of the governor or a judge of the supreme court, by the secretary of the commission and shall be served by the marshal of the court or by a special messenger appointed for that purpose.
Forfeiture of office--reasons for.
(RSMo 1939 § 12851, A.L. 1945 p. 1319 § 12851d)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11225; 1919 § 9198; 1909 § 10227
106.220. Any person elected or appointed to any county, city, town or township office in this state, except such officers as may be subject to removal by impeachment, who shall fail personally to devote his time to the performance of the duties of such office, or who shall be guilty of any willful or fraudulent violation or neglect of any official duty, or who shall knowingly or willfully fail or refuse to do or perform any official act or duty which by law it is his duty to do or perform with respect to the execution or enforcement of the criminal laws of the state, shall thereby forfeit his office, and may be removed therefrom in the manner provided in sections 106.230 to 106.290.
Complaint against officer--duty of prosecuting attorney.
(RSMo 1939 § 12828)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11202; 1919 § 9175; 1909 § 10204
106.230. When any person has knowledge that any official mentioned in section 106.220 has failed, personally, to devote his time to the performance of the duties of such office, or has been guilty of any willful, corrupt or fraudulent violations or neglect of any official duty, or has knowingly or willfully failed or refused to perform any official act or duty which by law it was his duty to do or perform with respect to the execution or enforcement of the criminal laws of this state, he may make his affidavit before any person authorized to administer oaths, setting forth the facts constituting such offense and file the same with the clerk of the court having jurisdiction of the offense, for the use of the prosecuting attorney or deposit it with the prosecuting attorney, furnishing also the names of witnesses who have knowledge of the facts constituting such offense; and it shall be the duty of the prosecuting attorney, if, in his opinion, the facts stated in said affidavit justify the prosecution of the official charged, to file a complaint in the circuit court as soon as practicable upon such affidavit, setting forth in plain and concise language the charge against such official, or the prosecuting attorney may file such complaint against such official upon his official oath and upon his own affidavit.
Appointment of special prosecutor.
(RSMo 1939 § 12829)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11203; 1919 § 9176; 1909 § 10205
106.240. Upon the filing of the affidavit as provided in section 106.230, against any prosecuting attorney, the judge of the circuit court of said county may appoint a special prosecutor, who shall have power and authority to file a complaint, as provided in section 106.230, against said prosecuting attorney.
Action by attorney general.
(RSMo 1939 § 12830)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11204; 1919 § 9177; 1909 § 10206
106.250. When an affidavit has been filed with the clerk of the circuit court of any county in this state, as provided in sections 106.230 and 106.240, the governor may, in his discretion, direct the attorney general to assist in the prosecution against said officer; and in case of the refusal of the prosecuting attorney or special prosecutor, after the filing of the affidavit provided for in sections 106.230 and 106.240, to file a complaint, the attorney general shall have authority to file a complaint against the official complained of.
Appointment of special sheriff.
(RSMo 1939 § 12831)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11205; 1919 § 9178; 1909 § 10207
106.260. In any proceedings instituted under the provisions of sections 106.220 to 106.290, the attorney general, prosecuting attorney or special prosecutor appointed by the court may file with the clerk of the circuit court an affidavit that he believes the sheriff of said county is disqualified from summoning a fair and impartial jury for the trial of said cause, by reason of the fact that he is related to the defendant, or is interested or prejudiced in his favor to such an extent that he will not, in the opinion of said attorney general, prosecuting attorney or special prosecutor, summon a fair and impartial jury, and the judge may, in his discretion, thereupon make an order disqualifying said sheriff from summoning the jury in said cause, and appoint an elisor, who shall have the same power as the sheriff in the summoning of the jury, and perform the duties of the sheriff in the trial of said cause; provided, that in case the said proceeding shall be against the sheriff of any county, the judge shall make an order disqualifying him, and appoint an elisor for the summoning of the jury and performing the duties of the office of the sheriff for the trial of said cause.
Removal of officer--vacancy, how filled.
(RSMo 1939 § 12832)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11206; 1919 § 9179; 1909 § 10208
106.270. 1. If any official against whom a proceeding has been filed, as provided for in sections 106.220 to 106.290, shall be found guilty of failing personally to devote his time to the performance of the duties of such office, or of any willful, corrupt or fraudulent violation or neglect of official duty, or of knowingly or willfully failing or refusing to do or perform any official act or duty which by law it is made his duty to do or perform with respect to the execution or enforcement of the criminal laws of the state, the court shall render judgment removing him from such office, and he shall not be elected or appointed to fill the vacancy thereby created, but the same shall be filled as provided by law for filling vacancies in other cases. All actions and proceedings under sections 106.220 to 106.290 shall be in the nature of civil actions, and tried as such.
2. Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the removal or discharge of any chief, as that term is defined in section 106.273.
Removal of chief law enforcement officer, when.
(RSMo 1939 § 12833, A.L. 2013 H.B. 307)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11207; 1919 § 9180; 1909 § 10209
106.273. 1. For the purposes of this section, the following terms shall mean:
(1) "Chief", any nonelected chief law enforcement officer of any political subdivision;
(2) "Just cause", exists when a chief:
(a) Is unable to perform his or her duties with reasonable competence or reasonable safety as a result of a mental condition, including alcohol or substance abuse;
(b) Has committed any act, while engaged in the performance of his or her duties, that constitutes a reckless disregard for the safety of the public or another law enforcement officer;
(c) Has caused a material fact to be misrepresented for any improper or unlawful purpose;
(d) Acts in a manner for the sole purpose of furthering his or her self-interest or in a manner inconsistent with the interests of the public or the chief's governing body;
(e) Has been found to have violated any law, statute, or ordinance which constitutes a felony; or
(f) Has been deemed insubordinate or found to be in violation of a written established policy, unless such claimed insubordination or violation of a written established policy was a violation of any federal or state law or local ordinance.
2. A chief shall be subject to removal from office or employment by the appointing authority or the governing body of the political subdivision employing the chief if:
(1) The governing body of the political subdivision employing the chief issues a written notice to the chief whose removal is being sought no fewer than ten business days prior to the meeting at which his or her removal will be considered;
(2) The chief has been given written notice as to the governing body's intent to remove him or her. Such notice shall include:
(a) Charges specifying just cause for which removal is sought;
(b) A statement of facts that are alleged to constitute just cause for the chief's removal; and
(c) The date, time, and location of the meeting at which the chief's removal will be considered;
(3) The chief is given an opportunity to be heard before the governing body, together with any witnesses, evidence and counsel of his or her choosing; and
(4) The governing body, by two-thirds majority vote, finds just cause for removing the chief.
3. Upon the satisfaction of the removal procedure under subsection 2 of this section, the chief shall be immediately removed from his or her office, shall be relieved of all duties and responsibilities of said office, and shall be entitled to no further compensation or benefits not already earned, accrued, or agreed upon.
4. Any chief removed pursuant to subsection 3 of this section shall be issued a written notice of the grounds of his or her removal within fourteen calendar days of the removal.
Right of appeal.
(L. 2013 H.B. 307)
106.280. In all prosecutions under sections 106.220 to 106.290, the defendant shall, upon conviction, after judgment of removal is entered, be entitled to an appeal to the supreme court of Missouri, and said cause shall have precedence in said court on such appeal, and such supreme court shall hear such appeal as soon as possible. Pending such appeal such officer shall be suspended from office, and the trial court shall appoint a resident of the county, qualified in law, who shall act as such special officer pending the appeal; and if the decision on said appeal in said supreme court shall be in favor of the defendant, he shall be entitled to the pay for the time for which he was removed. The person acting as such officer during such appeal shall be entitled to the same compensation of a duly elected officer. The costs herein provided for shall be taxed against and paid by the county in which said proceedings originated. And the fee of any prosecuting attorney, as provided for in sections 106.220 to 106.290, shall be a reasonable one, fixed by the court, and payable out of the county treasury.
Payment of costs.
(RSMo 1939 § 12834)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11208; 1919 § 9181; 1909 § 10210
106.290. If, upon the trial of such cause, the defendant be acquitted, the complainant shall be adjudged to pay all costs, and upon motion for that purpose, filed before said cause shall be called for trial, the court may compel him to give security for payment of the same, and in default thereof may dismiss the complaint, except that in cases where the complaint is filed officially, no security for costs shall be required, and no costs adjudged against the complainant; but the same shall be paid by the county in case of acquittal, and by the defendant in case of conviction.
(RSMo 1939 § 12835)
Prior revisions: 1929 § 11209; 1919 § 9182; 1909 § 10211